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06.02.2015 08:24
The Mount Washington Cog Railway is the world's first mountain antworten

<P>climbing cog railway (rack and pinion railway). The railway is still in operation, climbing Mount Washington in New Hampshire, USA. It uses a Marsh rack system and one or two steam locomotives and four biodiesel powered locomotives to carry tourists to the top of the mountain.</p>
<P>It is the second steepest rack railway in the world[2] with an average grade of over 25% and a maximum grade of 37.41%. The railway is approximately 3 miles (4.8 long and ascends 's western slope beginning at an elevation of approximately 2,700 feet (820 above sea level and ending just short of the mountain's summit peak of 6,288 feet (1,917 The train ascends the mountain at 2.8 miles per hour (4.5 and descends at 4.6 (7.4 It takes approximately 65 minutes to ascend and 40 minutes to descend although the diesel can go up in as little as 37 minutes.</p>
<P>Most of the Mount Washington Cog Railway is in Thompson and Meserve's Purchase, with the part of the railway nearest to 's summit being in Sargent's Purchase.</p>
<P>The railway was built by Sylvester Marsh (1803 1884)[3] of Campton, who came up with the idea while climbing the mountain in 1857. His plan was treated as insane. Local tradition says the state legislature voted permission based on a consensus that harm resulting from operating it was no issue since the design was attempting the impossible but benefits were guaranteed: The $5,000 of his own money he put up, and whatever else he could raise, would be spent largely locally, including building the Fabyan House hotel at nearby Fabyan Station to accommodate the expected tourists. The railway is sometimes called "Railway to the Moon" because one state legislator remarked during the proceedings that Marsh should not only be given a charter up Mount Washington but also to the moon. After developing a prototype locomotive and a short demonstration section of track, he found investors and started construction.</p>
<P>Despite its incomplete state, the first paying customers rode in 1868; the construction reached the summit in 1869. The early locomotives all had vertical boilers, like many stationary steam engines of the time; the boilers were mounted on trunnions allowing them to be held vertically no matter what the gradient of the track. Later designs introduced horizontal boilers, slanted so they remain close to horizontal on the steeply graded track.</p>
<P>Sylvester Marsh died in 1884 and control of the Cog passed to the Concord Montreal Railroad, which ran it until 1889 when the Boston Maine Railroad took over.[4]</p>
<P>Control by the Teagues began in 1931 when Col. Henry N. Teague bought the Cog. In 1951 following Col. Teague's death, Arthur S. Teague, the colonel's protg but no relation, became general manager. Arthur S. Teague gained ownership in 1961. After he died in 1967, the ownership passed to his wife, Ellen Crawford Teague, who ran the Cog as the world's first woman president of a railway. In 1983 Mrs. Teague sold the railway to a group of New Hampshire businessmen. Since 1986 the cog railway has been controlled and owned by Wayne Presby and Joel Bedor of Littleton, New Hampshire. The Bedor and Presby families also owned the Mount Washington Hotel and Resort in Bretton Woods for the period 1991 2006. Since 1995 the railway has been managed by Charles Kenison. These individuals have been responsible for a complete revitalization of the railroad.[1][4][5] The Cog has been in continuous operation since 1869 with service interruptions only during the World Wars.</p>
<P>In the summer of 2008, the Cog introduced its first diesel locomotive. The late 2000s recession and the 2000s energy crisis led to fewer passengers, and the Cog sought to cut costs with the diesel, which could make 3 round trips for the cost of one steam train round trip. In 2012 the railroad had the highest passenger count in its history.[6]Since the early days of the railway's construction the workers wanted to minimize time when climbing and descending the ramp, so they invented slideboards fitting over the cog rack and providing enough room for themselves and their tools. These boards no two were exactly alike were approximately 90 (35 long by 25 (9.8 wide, made of wood with hand forged iron and with two long hardwood handles usually attached at the down mountain end. The first locomotive, 1 (first named Hero and later because of its vertical boiler's resemblance to a pepper sauce bottle) which was used to build the railway was found after being lost for many years as it had been moved about the country and placed on display at many exhibitions. The owners of the railway at the time (the Boston Maine Railroad) decided to restore and make a commemorative trip for the railway's 60th anniversary. During the ascent, however, the locomotive's front axle broke and the locomotive began descending the mountain at high speed. All but one of wholesale nfl jerseys its crew jumped to safety (though some suffered broken bones), but one man did not escape and died. Although the locomotive broke into pieces, the boiler did not rupture, and the pieces were later reassembled to reconstruct the locomotive for static display. It is now located at the Cog Railway Base Station.[7]</P>
<P>On September 17, 1967, eight passengers were killed and seventy two injured when Engine 3 derailed at the Skyline switch about a mile below the summit. The engine rolled off the trestle while the uncoupled passenger car slid several hundred feet into a large rock. An investigation revealed that the Skyline switch had not been properly configured for the descending train. The railway nonetheless has a solid safety record having taken almost five million people to the summit during its existence.</p>
<P>Each train consists of a locomotive pushing a single passenger car up the mountain, cheap jerseys and descending the mountain by going backwards. Both locomotive and car were originally equipped with a ratchet and pawl mechanism engaged during the climb that prevents any roll back; during descent, both locomotive and car are braked. Recent improvements in design have replaced the ratchet (gear and pawl mechanism) with sprag clutches and disc brake assemblies. Most of the locomotives were made by the .</P>
<P>The rack rail design used is one of Marsh's own invention, using a ladder like rack with open bar rungs engaged by the teeth of the cog wheel. This system allows snow and debris to fall through the rack rather wholesale jerseys than lodge in it. A similar design, called the Riggenbach rack system, was invented by engineer Niklaus Riggenbach in Switzerland at about the same time. The Swiss Consul to the United States visited Marsh while constructing the railway up Mount Washington, and his enthusiastic reports persuaded the Swiss government to commission Riggenbach to build on Rigi Mountain the Vitznau Rigi Bahn, opened on May 21, 1871.</P>
<P>Initially, there was no way to pass on the Mount Washington Cog Railway. In 1941, a nine motion switch was invented, and two spur sidings were added, each long enough to divert two climbing trains so others could pass descending the slope, enabling more round trips per day.</p>
<P>In 2004, work was completed replacing the lower Switch and Siding with an 1,800 foot (550 passing loop equipped with electric and hydraulicly powered automated switches. One switch is located at each end of the loop, allowing ascending and descending trains to pass one another.[8]</p>
<P>The most common trips on the Cog Railway are between the two main stations, one at the summit and the other adjacent to the operators' logistical and repair base.</p>
<P>From 2003 to 2006, "ski trains" ran, stopping at an intermediate station, from which passengers could ski cheap nfl jerseys down to the Base Station.</P>
<P>The Cog Railway track crosses a hiking trail a relatively short distance below the summit of Mount Washington, and some hikers wait for the next train in order to moon the passengers. This practice is known as "Mooning the Cog." Several hikers were arrested for performing this ritual in 2008.</p>
<P>Access to the base station by car is by three possible routes, each culminating with the upper portion of the dead end Cog Base Road. The advertised, roughly eastbound route uses the Base Road's full length from Bretton Woods. Highway 2, follows Jefferson Notch Road, a narrow dirt road with hairpin turns; it rises 1,500 feet (460 to the pass, at 3,000 feet (910 above sea level, between Mount Jefferson in the Presidential Range and Mount Dartmouth, before descending to its junction with the Base Road. However, in winter, and usually before and after, the Jefferson Notch Road is closed to wheeled vehicles and used primarily by snowmobiles. Highway 302 in Crawford Notch via Mt. Clinton Road is also closed in the winter to vehicular traffic. The primary reason the new diesels were built was to reduce the visual pollution caused by the coal fired steam locomotives and to increase the length of time that passengers could have at the summit of . in existence</p>

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