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06.05.2014 04:55
individuals. Social Ps antworten

<P>When Someone Has Schizophrenia</P>
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<P>Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder most chronic and disabling of the severe mental illnesses. The first signs of schizophrenia, which typically emerge in young people in their teens or twenties, are confusing and often shocking to families and friends. Hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, unusual speech or behavior and social withdrawal impair the ability to interact with others. Most people with schizophrenia suffer chronically or episodically throughout their lives, losing opportunities for careers and relationships. 1 They often are stigmatized by lack of public understanding about the disease. However, several new antipsychotic medications developed within the last decade, Clayton Kershaw Jersey which have fewer side effects than the older medications, in combination with psychosocial interventions have improved the outlook for many people with schizophrenia. 2</P>
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<P>This painting was done for the Schizophrenia Bulletin, which features art created by people who have struggled with schizophrenia. The artist, Philip Kurz, has provided us with the following description of this artwork: I believed that everything within me and around me was through my blank mind and my arm onto the paper. I felt that keeping a blank mind was important to the success of the painting, and this was relatively easy to do since it approximated my normal state. This feeling all seems outlandish now.</P>
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<P>News and entertainment media tend to link mental illnesses including schizophrenia to criminal violence. Most people with schizophrenia, however, are not violent toward others but are withdrawn and prefer to be left alone. Drug or alcohol abuse raises the risk of violence in people with schizophrenia, particularly if the illness is untreated, but also in people who have no mental illness.8,9</P>
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<P>Family studies indicate that genetic vulnerability is a risk factor for schizophrenia.10 A person with a parent or sibling with schizophrenia has approximately a 10 percent risk of developing the disorder compared to a 1 percent risk for a person with no family history of schizophrenia. At the same time, among individuals with schizophrenia who have an identical twin, and thus share the exact genetic makeup, there is only a 50 percent chance that both twins will be affected with the disease. Scientists conclude that nongenetic factors, such as environmental stress perhaps occurring during fetal development or at birth, also may contribute to the risk of schizophrenia.11, 12</P>
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<P>Research suggests that schizophrenia may be a developmental disorder resulting from impaired migration of neurons in the brain during fetal development.13</P>
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<P>Advances in neuroimaging have shown that some people with schizophrenia have abnormalities in brain structure consisting of enlarged ventricles, the fluid filled cavities deep within the brain.14</P>
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<P>Schizophrenia can appear in children, though it is very rare. Others may stop treatment because of medication side effects, because they feel their medication is no longer working, or because of forgetfulness or disorganized thinking. People with schizophrenia who stop taking Youth Hanley Ramirez Jersey prescribed medication are at high risk for a relapse of illness.18 A good doctor patient relationship may help people with schizophrenia continue to take medications as prescribed.19 Developing safer and more effective medications, as well as identifying strategies to enhance the acceptability of currently available treatments, are important NIMH priorities.</P>
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<P>Present and Future Research Directions</P>
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<P>In addition to the development of new treatments, NIMH research is focusing on the relationships among genetic, behavioral, developmental, social and other factors to Youth Clayton Kershaw Jersey identify the cause or causes of schizophrenia. Utilizing increasingly precise imaging techniques, scientists are studying the structure and function of the living brain. New molecular tools and modern statistical analyses are enabling researchers to close in on the particular genes that affect brain development or brain circuitry involved in schizophrenia. Scientists are continuing to investigate possible prenatal factors, including infections, which may affect brain development and contribute to the development of schizophrenia.</P>
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<P>1 Harrow M, Sands JR, Silverstein ML, et al. Course and outcome for schizophrenia versus other psychotic patients: a longitudinal study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1997; 23(2): 287 303.</P>
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<P>2 Lehman AF, Steinwachs DM. Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1998; 24(1): 1 10.</P>
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<P>3 Narrow WE. Census estimated residential population age 18 and over on July 1, 1998. Unpublished.</P>
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<P>4 Regier DA, Narrow WE, Rae DS, et al. The de facto mental and addictive disorders service system. Epidemiologic Catchment Area prospective 1 year prevalence rates of disorders and services. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1993; 50(2): 85 94. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1973. Summary: The global burden of disease: a comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Published by the Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank, Harvard University Press, 1996. Symptoms, subtype, and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997; 154(2): 199 204.</P>
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<P>8 Swartz MS, Swanson JW, Hiday VA, et al. Taking the wrong drugs: the role of substance abuse and medication noncompliance in violence among severely mentally ill individuals. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1998; 33(Suppl 1): S75 S80.</P>
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<P>9 Steadman HJ, Mulvey EP, Monahan J, et al. Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1998; 55(5): 393 401.</P>
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<P>10 NIMH Genetics Workgroup. Genetics and mental disorders. NIH Publication No. 98 4268. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1998.</P>
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<P>11 Geddes JR, Lawrie SM. Obstetric complications and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1995; 167(6): 786 93.</P>
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<P>12 Olin SS, Mednick SA. Authentic Hanley Ramirez Jersey Risk factors of psychosis: identifying vulnerable populations premorbidly. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1996; 22(2): 223 40.</P>

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